Raw Materials

Towards the target of further vertigal integration of its services, ENGAIA has proceeded to the cultivation of land plots, aiming at the production and distribution of raw materials in order to cover part of the necessary raw material required for the continuous operation of its projects.

Biomass is defined as a material of biological (organic) origin. It is a substantial, inexhaustible and environmentally friendly energy source, which may make a considerable contribution towards energy adequacy, replacing the depleting reserves of fossil fuels (oil, coal, natural gas, etc.). The utilization of biomass as an energy source is not new. Firewood and charcoal which covered until the end of last century 97% of the energy needs of Greece, are considered as such.

In practice, the term biomass covers any material directly or indirectly originating from the plant kingdom. More specifically, it includes:

  • plant material originating either from natural ecosystems such as uncultivated plants and forests, or energy crops (defined as crops specially cultivated for the production of biomass for energy generation) of farm and forest plants such as straw, eucalyptus, sorghum bicolor, etc.,
  • byproducts and residues from plant, stockbreeding, forest and fishing production such as straw, corn or cotton shank, fascine poles, branches, seaweed, stockbreeding waste, tendrils, etc,
  • byproducts originating from the processing or treatment of these materials such as olive pomace wood, residues of cotton ginning, sawdust, etc,
  • as well as that part of urban waste and wastewater which is of organic origin.


Parallel to the utilization of various rural and forest pickings, substantial quantities of biomass may be taken from energy crops. Compared to rural and forest pickings, such crops have the distinct advantage of a higher output per surface unit and easier collection. Energy crops have earned special significance in developed countries in recent years in their effort to limit their agricultural surpluses using energy crops, as well as to deal with their environmental and energy problems.

ENGAIA has collaborated with the Greek National Forest institute and materialised a model energy crop cultivation aiming to determine the optimum solution for big scale cultivation under the local conditions. The key parameters that are being assessed are the moisture of the resulting material, its content in ash, its composition, its heating value, its density and its granulometry.